과학철학에서 모형에 관한 논의가 활발히 이루어지는 중. 아래의 두 실러버스는 최근 두 대학 철학과에서 개설된 강의임. 일단 아래의 두 실러버스를 기초로 리딩을 하려고 함.
- Isabelle F. Peschard and Bas C. van Fraassen. Fall 2008. Syllabus for the seminar on the practice of modeling in the science. San Francisco State University.
- Kevin D. Hoover and Susan G. Sterrett. Spring 2009. Seminar on Models and Analogies in the Natural and Social Sciences. Duke University.
- Morrison, Magaret and Mary S. Morgan (1999). Introduction. Models as Mediators, eds. M. S. Morgan and M. Morrison. 최근 과학철학에서 모형 관련 논의에 관한 판도 변화를 주고 있는 책 Models as Mediators의 1장으로, 과학 및 경제학 철학에서의 모형 관련 논의에 대한 간락한 리뷰를 제공하고 있다.
- Hildebrand, J. H. (1964). "The Use of Models in Physical Science." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 108(5): 411-417.
- Giere, R. N. (1988). Models and Theories. Explnaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press.
- Teller, P. (2001). "Twilight of the Perfect Model Model." Erkenntnis 55: 393-415.
- Hughes, R. I. G. (1997). "Models and Representation." Philosophy of Science 64(Proceedings): S325-S336.
- Morrison, M. (2007). "Where Have All the Theories Gone?" Philosophy of Science 74(April): 195-228.
- Frigg, R. (2006). "Scientific Representation and the Semantic View of Theories." Theoria 55: 49-65
Models and Analogy
- Hesse, M. (1967). Models and Analogy in Science. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. P. Edwards: 354-359.
- Boltzmann, L. (1911). Model. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- 원문 : Model (번역)
- Black, M. (1962). Models and Archetypes. Models and Metaphors. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press: 219-243.
- Campbell, N. R. (1957). Foundations of Science: The Philosophy of Theory and Experiment, Dover Publications.
- Simon Schaffer. “Fish and Ships: Models in the Age of Reason,” in Soraya de Chadarevian and Nick Hop, editors. Models: The Third Dimension of Science. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004, ch. 4 (pp. 71-108).
- Rom Harré. The Logic of the Sciences. [excerpt pages 86-87 (from “At this point it will be useful . . “ on p. 86 to “the simplest kind of conceptual paramorph.” on p. 87.]
- Susan G. Sterrett. “Physical Models and Fundamental Laws: Using one Piece of the World to Tell About Another” Mind and Society 3(5), 2002.
- Evelyn Fox Keller. “Models, Simulation, and Computer Experiments,” in Hans Radder, editor. The Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.
Analogies and Metaphors
- Karl H. Pribram. “From Metaphors to Models: The Use of Analogy in Neuropsychology,” in David E. Leary, editor. Metaphors in the History of Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, ch. 2 (pp. 79-103).
- Rom Harré. “Metaphors as the Expression of Models,” Daniel Rothbart, editor. Modeling: Gateway to the Unknown; A Work by Rom Harré, pp. 115-124.
- Daniela Bailer-Jones. “Models, Metaphors, and Analogies,” in Peter Machamer and Michael Silberstein, editors. Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Science, chapter 6 (pp 108 – 127).
- Max Black. “Metaphor,” Models and Metaphors. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1962, chapter 3 (pp. 25-47).
- 원문 : Metaphor.pdf
Models in Physics and Chemistry
- Heinrich Hertz. “On the Appropriateness, Correctness, and Permissibility of Scientific Theories,” The Principles of Mechanics, D. E. Jones and J. T. Walley, translators. New York, 1899, pp. 24-41. Reprinted in Joseph J. Kockelmans, editor. Philosophy of Science: The Historical Background. New York: Free Press, 1968, ch. 11 (pp. 227-242).
- Ludwig Boltzmann. “On the Fundamental Principles and Basic Equations of Mechanics,” Populare Schriften. Leipzig, 1905, pp. 253-270. Reprinted in Joseph J. Kockelmans, editor. Philosophy of Science: The Historical Background. New York: Free Press, 1968, pp. 246-260.
- Mary B. Hesse. “Models and Analogies,” in W. H. Newton-Smith, editor. A Companion to the Philosophy of Science, Oxford: Blackwell, 2000, ch. 44 (pp. 299-307).
- Ursula Klein. “Techniques of Modelling and Paper-tools in Classical Chemistry,” in Mary S. Morgan and Margaret Morrison, editors. Models as Mediators: Perspectives on Natural and Social Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, ch. 6 (pp. 146-167).
- Christoph Meinel. “Molecules and Croquet Balls,” in Soraya de Chadarevian and Nick Hop, editors. Models: The Third Dimension of Science. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004, ch. 9 (pp. 242-275).
- Simon Schaffer. “A Science Whose Business is Bursting: Bubbles as Commodities in Classical Physics,” in Lorraine Daston, editor. Things that Talk: Object Lessons from Art and Science. New York: Zone Books, 2008, chapter 4 (pp. 147-192). [NB. not as long as the page numbers make it look – lots of pictures and white space.]
Models in Biology
- Hudson Kern Reeve. “In Search of Unified Theories in Sociobiology: Help from Social Wasps,” in Lee Alan Dugatkin, editor. Model Systems in Behavioral Ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001, ch. 4 (pp. 57-71).
- Richard C. Conner. “Bottlenose Dolphins: Social Relationships in a Big-Brained Aquatic Mammal,” in Lee Alan Dugatkin, editor. Model Systems in Behavioral Ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001, ch. 20 (pp. 408-432).
- E. Jane Albert Hubbard. “Model Organisms as Powerful Tools for Biomedical Research,” in Angela N. H. Creager, Elizabeth Lunbeck, and M. Norton Wise, editors. Science Without Laws: Model Systems, Cases, Exemplary Narratives. Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 59-72.
Models in Social Sciences
- Thomas C. Schelling. “Models of Segregation,” The American Economic Review 59(2), May 1969, 488-493.
- Thomas. C. Schelling “Experimental Games and Bargaining Theory” World Politics 14(1), October 1961, pp. 47-68.
- Martin Hollis. “Three Men in a Drought,” Reason in Action: Essays in the Philosophy of Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, ch. 2 (pp. 19-39).
Models in Economics
- Daniel Hausman. “Models and Theories in Economics,” The Inexact and Separate Science of Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, ch. 5 (pp. 70-82).
- Allan Gibbard and Hal Varian. “Economic Models,” Journal of Philosophy 75(11), 1978, pp. 664-677.
- Robert Sugden. “Credible Worlds: The Status of Theoretical Models in Economics,” Journal of Economic Methodology 7(1), 2000, pp. 1-31.
- Mary Morgan. “The Technology of Analytical Models: Irving Fisher’s Monetary Worlds,” Philosophy of Science 64(supplement), December 1997, pp. S304-S314.
Models and Analogy in Discovery
- Richard Boyd. “Metaphor and theory change: What is ‘metaphor’ a metaphor for?”, 356-408 in Andrew Ortony, editor. Metaphor and Thought, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
- Dedre Gentner. “Analogy in Scientific Discovery: The Case of Johannes Kepler,” in Lorenzo Magnani and Nancy J. Nersessian, editors. Model-Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, pp. 21-40.
- Samuel Schindler. “Model, Theory, and Evidence in the Discovery of the DNA Structure,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59(4), 619-658.
- Peter Achinstein. “Maxwell's Analogies and Kinetic Theory,” Particles and Waves: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press, 1991, ch. 7 (pp. 207-232).
Models and Inference
- T. Salsburg. “Author's Preface” (pp. vii-xi) and “The Lady Tasting Tea” (ch. 1, pp. 1-8), The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century. Owl Books, 2002.
- Susan G. Sterrett. “Models of Machines and Models of Phenomena,” International Studies in Philosophy of Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, pp. 69-80.
- Wendy Parker. “Understanding Pluralism in Climate Modeling,” Foundations of Science, 11(4), December 2006.
- Giere, Ronald “How Models Are Used To Represent Reality,” Philosophy of Science, 71(5), December 2004, 742-752.
Models and Explanation
- Mary S. Morgan. “Learning from Models,” in Mary S. Morgan and Margaret Morrison, editors. Models as Mediators: Perspectives on Natural and Social Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, ch. 12 (pp. 347-388).
- Herbert Mehrtens. “Mathematical Models,” in Soraya de Chadarevian and Nick Hop, editors. Models: The Third Dimension of Science. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004, pp. 276-306.
- Mary B. Hesse. “The Explanatory Function of Metaphor,” Models and Analogies in Science. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1970, pp. 157-177.
- Barry K. Carpenter. “Models and Explanations: Understanding Chemical Reaction Mechanisms,” in Nalini Bhushan and Stuart Rosenfeld, editors. Of Minds and Molecules: New Philosophical Perspectives on Chemistry. Oxford University Press, 2000, ch. 12 (pp. 211-229).